Berchem - Stolpersteine
A Stolperstein literally "stumbling stone", metaphorically a "stumbling block" is a sett-size, 10 by 10 centimetres (3.9 in × 3.9 in) concrete cube bearing a brass plate inscribed with the name and life dates of victims of Nazi extermination or persecution.
The Stolpersteine project, initiated by the German artist Gunter Demnig in 1992, aims to commemorate individuals at exactly the last place of residency—or, sometimes, work—which was freely chosen by the person before he or she fell victim to Nazi terror, euthanasia, eugenics, was deported to a concentration or extermination camp, or escaped persecution by emigration or suicide. As of 29 March 2018, over 67,000 Stolpersteine have been laid in 22 countries, making the Stolpersteine project the world's largest decentralized memorial.
The majority of Stolpersteine commemorate Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Others have been placed for Sinti and Romani people (then also called "gypsies"), homosexuals, the physically or mentally disabled, Jehovah's Witnesses, black people, members of the Communist Party, the Social Democratic Party, and the anti-Nazi Resistance, the Christian opposition (both Protestants and Catholics), and Freemasons, along with International Brigade soldiers in the Spanish Civil War, military deserters, conscientious objectors, escape helpers, capitulators, "habitual criminals", looters, and others charged with treason, military disobedience, or undermining the Nazi military, as well as Allied soldiers.
Tuesday 5 March 2019, Gunter Demnig, the German artists and creator of the Stolpersteine, was in Antwerp to lay 26 stones with the names of victims of Nazism.
List of Stolpersteine in the district of Berchem
Generaal Capiaumontstraat 37: LACE TENNENBAUM
Pretoriastraat 30: EMILE ZUCKERBERG
Uitbreidingsstraat 564: VIGDOR GETZEL HOLLANDER
Generaal Capiaumontstraat 37
gedeporteerd 1943 UIT
Generaal Capiaumontstraat 37
deported 1943 UIT
gevangen Montluc, Drancy
imprisoned Montluc, Drancy
Selig Zigmund Zuckerberg, father and Sarle Chaja Rozenfeld- Zuckerberg, mother of Emile
At the Pretoriastraat in Borgherout lived with his parents the little Emile Zuckerberg born in Antwerp on May 15, 1938 and who, after taking refuge in France at the start of the war, lived for some time in Izieu, before being arrested by the Gestapo. He was deported 4 weeks before his 6th birthday by the 71st convoy from Drancy to Auschwitz and murdered directly in the gas chamber, along with the 43 other children from the colony of Izieu. Separated from his instructor, Léa Feldblum, little Emile was "selected" for the gas chamber.
Son of Zygmund and Serla, both deported on September 14, 1942 by convoy No. 33 after being interned in Rivesaltes.
Vigdor Getsel (Victor) Hollander was born in Neu-Sandez, Austro-Hungarian empire, now Nowy Sacz in Poland, on 20 April 1887. He became a diamond trader and, in November 1909, emigrated to Belgium, where he settled in Antwerp. On 1st December 1909, he married Terez Eckstein, born in Moskolizi, Hungary, on 14 September 1888. Their oldest son, Mauritz Leo Hollander, was born in Antwerp on 16 December 1909. Three more boys followed : Marcel (b. 31/05/1912), Julius (b. 31/01/1915) and Ezriel Nathum (b. 29/06/1924).
In August 1914, while visiting Vigdor Getsel Hollander’s parents in Scheveningen, Germany invaded Belgium. For the duration of the First World War, the Hollander family remained in the Netherlands, where third son Julius was born. In 1919 they returned to Antwerp, where oldest son Mauritz Leo Hollander passed away on 26 September 1922.
On 11 and 12 September 1942, the Nazis organised a big anti-Jewish raid in Antwerp. Among the hundreds of people that were arrested was also Vigdor Getzel Hollander. He did not survive deportation from the Dossin barracks to Auschwitz-Birkenau via Transport X on 15 September 1942.
His wife, Terez Eckstein, survived the war hiding in Antwerp with her mother and emigrated to Israel in 1949. During the Second World War, Marcel found refuge in Latin-America and then joined the Belgian armed forces in Canada. Post-war he emigrated to the USA. Julius and his brother Ezriel (alias Pino) lived in London during the war. They post-war returned to Belgium after which Julius also migrated to Israël. Ezriel returned to Antwerp and married Louise Rachel Götz in 1949.